Translating Humanitarian Emergency into Medical Aid in Syria

Claire Glasscoe


This website is not yet complete – it is a work in progress and intended to be collaborative so feedback is welcome

Claire Glasscoe

Photographer, Writer, Researcher





Joe Gill (04/03/16) Book Review for Middle Eat Eye of Burning Country: Syrians in Revolution and War (2016) by Robin Yassin-Kassab and Leila Al-Shami Pluto Press

Robin Yassin-Kassab and Leila Al-Sharmi (Feb 2016) Burning Country: Syrians in Revolution and War Pluto Press

Amal Hanano (30/03/12) The Syrian Schoolboys Who Sparked a Revolution one-page article in The National - full

Liam Stack (30/05/11) Video of tortured boy’s Corpse Deepens Anger in Syria The New York Times

Freemuse, (06/07/11) Protest Singer Ibrahim Kashoush had his Throat Cut

Ibrahim Qashoush singing to large gathering on 27/06/11 in Hama. Uploaded on 2 Jul 2011 by the Creative Syrian Revolution to YouTube Video. With the message:The singer "Ibrahim Qashoush" was reported to be killed in Hama on 3 July 2011 by regime mercenaries, they cut his throat to try to stop his chant spreading.

Martin Chulov and Mona Mahmood (01/06/12) The Houla Massacre: Reconstructing the events of the 25th May The Guardian

Robin Yassin-Kassab and Leila Al-Shami (28/03/16) How the Syrian Revolt became Armed; An exclusive excerpt from a new history of the conflict – Burning Country. The Daily Beast

National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces (formed November 2012) – ‘About’ webpage: the Mission of the Coalition

Free Syrian Army (04/07/12) Statement of Principles, Carnegie Middle East Centre

Shadi Hamid (06/05/14) The Future of Democracy in the Middle East: Islamist and Illiberal The Atlantic versus liberal democracy

Robin Yassin-Kassab (27/08/16) The Tragedy of Daraya, The New Arab

Syrian American Medical Society (February 2016) A New Normal: Ongoing chemical weapons attacks in Syria New Normal_Ongoing Chemical Weapons Attacks in Syria.compressed.pdf

Violations Documentation Centre in Syria database listing those killed by chemical and toxic gases on 21/08/13

Peter Bouckaert Emergencies Director, Human Rights Watch (21/08/14) Syria: Chemical Attacks on Gouta 21/08/13, YouTube

Syria Chemical Attack: Key UN findings (30/01/14) BBC News Middle East

Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary General (24/08/16) Third report of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons – United Nations Joint Investigative Mechanism with covering letter to President of the Security Council

Hatice Vildan Topaloğlu (13/01/16) Syria’s besieged on Verge of Humanitarian Crisis, Anadolu Agency

Valerie Szybala (March 2015) Slow Death: Life and Death in Syrian Communities Under Siege, Syrian American Medical Society

BBC Middle East (21/04/16) Syria Conflict: Largest aid convoy reaches besieged Rastan

Pawel Krzysiek (23/04/16) Syria’s Shadowlands: ‘He wanted to go home. When he died I’d failed him,’ The Guardian

Thanassis Cambanis (29/03/16) The Syrian Revolution Against Al Qaeda: An unexpected turn after a clash between Free Syria Army forces and Jabhat al-Nusra fighters offers a window into who’s really winning hearts and minds, Foreign Policy

MEE staff (20/04/16) Dozens killed in Syrian government air strikes as opposition leaves talks, Middle East Eye

Kafrenbel English (29/01/16) Please do not say Civil War, it is a #Revolution hijacked by extreme #Islamist & #ISIS, destroyed by #Assad, @kafrev on Twitter

Arab Centre for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS) (03/06/14) Syria’s 2014 Presidential Elections: Internally Displaced Syrians and Refugees Give their Verdict, Doha Institute

Karim Sadjadour (09/06/14) Iran: Syria’s Lone Regional Ally, Carnegie Endowment for international Peace

YaLibnan (28/10/15) Hezbollah’s Death Toll in Syrian Civil War Tops 1263 Al Sharq al Awsat

Jeff Seldin (02/05/16) Report: Iran Paying with Blood to Prop Up Syrian Regime, Voice of America News, Middle East

Barak Ravid (11/04/16) For First Time, Netanyahu Admits Israel Struck Arms Shipments en Route to Hezbollah in Syria, Haaretz

Nour Samaha (19/01/15) Lebanon Awaits Hezbollah’s Response: Israel’s killing of six Hezbollah members was game changer, destroying the status quo, analysts say, Aljazeera, War & Conflict

Daniel Iriarte & Pablo Lopez Learte (01/10/16) Secret Bases of Iran in Syria, National Council of Resistance of Iran News, Terrorism and Fundamentalism

Paul Danahar ((16/07/15) The New Middle East: The world after the Arab Spring, Bloomsbury

Ahmad Alkhatib (28/0516) #isil #isis use rockets made in #Egypt and it’s been send to the #Syrian regime in #syria tweet by @AhmadAlkhatiib

NOW news reports (31/08/15) Retired general: Egypt arming Syria regime – Rebels have claimed the Syrian army is shelling Zabadani with Egyptian-manufactured missiles NOW reporting

Michael Izady (1997-2016) Syria: Ethnic Composition, Version 32

Michael Izady (2016) Syria: Tribal Composition (summary), Version 1

Aron Lund (02/07/15) Syria’s Bedouin Tribes: An interview with Dawn Chatty, Carnegie Middle East Centre

Hassan Hassan (25/07/12) Why Tribes Matter in Syria The Guardian, Syria, Opinion

Yalla Souriya (20/06/16) Creation the Badiya and Tadmur Tribal Council, Live update on the Syria revolution ignored by the mainstream news

Charles Lister (2015) The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, The Islamic State and the evolution of an insurgency, Hurst & Co, London,&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiPvuqkv7vMAhUMlxoKHQZ-D6MQ6AEIHTAA#v=onepage&q=the%20syrian%20revolution%20is%20a%20revolution%20of%20morals%20and%20values%2C&f=false

Hassan Hassan (16/08/14) Isis a portrait of the menace that is sweeping my homeland: The rise of isis is rooted in a mix of politics, a Sunni sense of isolation and a shakeup in Salafist doctrine. Here an analyst whose Syrian home has seen some of its bloodiest excesses, explains its dramatic surge. Islamic State, the Observer

Charles Lister (04/05/16) Al Qaeda is About to Establish an Emirate in Northern Syria: After tyyears of being on the back foot, the Nusra Front is laying the groundwork for Al Qaeda’s forst sovereign state. Foreign Policy, Argument

Hassan Hassan and Bassam Barabandi (03/08/16) Al Qaeda steps back to let Nusra move forward in Syria. The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy

@deSyracuse (02/09/16) Syria civil war, © OpenStreetMap contributors - 8/34.724/37.650

Chris Kozak (07/10/16) Syria Situation Report: September 22 – October 7, 2016, Institute for the Study of War

Tome Miles (01/09/16) Syria’s Opposition says Aleppo battles hides ‘cleansing’ of siege towns. Reuters World news

Sibel Uğurlu (14/08/16) Syria: PYD accused of changing demography in Manbij: PYD allegedly set ablaze civil registry and land registry buildings in Manbij shortly after taking city from Daesh. Anadolu Agency

Michael Izady (2014-2016) Syria’s Federal Option, Version 6. .

Zaman al Wasl (23/03/16) Neither we nor Syria people friends accept federal system: Head of National Coalition. Syria News | Zaman ALWSL PAGE TWO

The Human Cost in Real Terms

Syrian Center for Policy Research (February 2016) Confronting Fragmentation! Impact of the Syrian Crisis 2015 – Quarterly based report.

Amnesty International (18/08/16) Syria: ‘It breaks the Human:’ Torture Disease and Death in Syria’s Prisons, Index No: MDE 24/4508/2016

Syrian Network for Human Rights (06/06/16) Report on arbitrary arrests in Syria for May 2016, The levels of arrest go back to what it was before the cessation of hostilities agreement

World Health Organization, Syrian Arab Republic (2015) Annual Report SOHR

The Syria Institute & PAX (May-July 2016) Siege Watch Third Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

European Commission (September 2016) Syria Crisis, ECHO Factsheet, Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (30/09/16) Total Persons of Concern, Syria Regional Refugee Response: Inter-agency Information Sharing Portal

UNHCR The UN Refugee Agency (April 2011 – August 2016) Europe: Syrian Asylum Applications, Syria Regional Refugee Response, Inter-agency Sharing Information Portal.

The Syria Campaign (15/03/11 – 01/03/16) Who’s Killing Civilians In Syria: A look at the data behind the headlines of what the UN calls the “world’s largest humanitarian crisis.' Syrian Network for Human Rights

Debarati Guha-Sapir, Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Madelyn H Hicks, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Adam Coutts, Louis Lillywhite & Fouad M Fouad (29/09/15) Civilian Deaths from Weapons Use in the Syrian Conflict. British Medical Journal 2015:351:h4736

Cian Doherty (03/02/16) Caesar exhibition brings viewers inside the Syrian torture system: Cian Doherty reflects on the Caesar photo exhibition recently hosted by GOAL in Dublin, STAND, Global Development Platform

Senator John McCain (20/07/15) The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum brought photo evidence of Syria’s secret prisons to the US Capitol. Remarks by Senator John McCain, YouTube

Priyanka Motaparthy, Nadim Houry, Racha Mouawieh, Ole Solvang, Josh Lyons & Sarkis Bulkhian together with Physicians for Human Rights, Tarrant County Medical Examiners Office, & the Syrian Violations Documentation Centre (16/12/15) If the Dead Could Speak: Mass deaths and torture in Syria’s detention facilities. Human Rights Watch

Amnesty International (05/07/16) ‘Torture was my Punishment’: Abductions, torture and summary killings under armed group rule in Aleppo and Idleb, Syria Index No: MDE 24/4227/2016

Megan Price, Anita Gohdes & Partick Ball (17/08/16) Technical Memo for Amnesty International Report on Deaths in Detention. Human Rights Data Analysis Group, Everybody counts, Amnesty International

Syrian Network for Human Rights (26/06/15) International Day in Support of Torture Victims: Twelve thousand victims of torture in Syria

Ben Taub (18/04/16) The Assad Files: Capturing the top-secret documents that tie the Syrian regime to mass torture and killing. The New Yorker

Syrian Network for Human Rights (17/12/14) Secret Detention Centres in Syria: Der Shmiel camp

Syrian Network for Human Rights (30/08/16) The Prolonged Pain: The crime of enforced-disappearance is most rampant in Syria; nearly 75,000 individuals are forcibly disappeared

Alessandria Massi (2016) About Syria Deeply, In-depth coverage of the war in Syria and part of News Deeply – digital media project coming emerging from San Francisco and New York, USA

Ammar Abdulhamid (24/11/15) ‘Who are those Syrian refugees really?’ I am Syria

Enab Baladdi (2016) Syrian non-profit media organization established in Daraya, Damascus suburbs in 2011 upon the outbreak of the Syrian uprising

Sergio Perez (12/10/2016) Celebrating the work of ‘Enab Baladi,’ citizen chroniclers of the Syrian Revolution. Hummus for Thought, Politics and Society

Handicap International (21/01/14) Causes and Types of Injuries Encountered by Handicap International while working with Internally Displaced Persons in Syria: A focus on the Impact of Explosive Weapons, Factsheet Syria

Zaher Sahloul (02/07/14) SAMS Testimony at the House Foreign Affairs Committee on the Syrian Humanitarian Crisis: Views from the ground, Syrian American Medical Society

Syria Relief (2015) National Syrian Project for Prosthetic Limbs

Syrian British Medical Society (April 2014) Ophthalmology Services

Lauren Wolfe (18/07/12) Our testimony to the UN today on sexualised violence in Syria. Women’s Media Centre, Women under Siege

International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) (April 2013) Violence against Women in Syria: Breaking the Silence. Briefing paper on and FIDH assessment mission in Jordan in December 2012 No: 6060a

Omer Karasapan (25/04/16) Syria’s Mental Health Crisis. Brookings, Future Development

Kasidis Rochanakorn, Chair, Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) working group (2007) IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Geneva IASC

Healthcare Targeted

Aula Abbara, Miriam Orcutt & Omar Gabbar (30/06/15) Doctors in the Firing Line: Syria’s lost generation of doctors. British Medical Journal BMJ 2015;350;h3479

UN Human Rights Council (05/02/15) Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, A/HRC/28/69

Physicians for Human Rights (April 2011 – June 2016) Anatomy of a Crisis: A map of attacks on health care in Syria

Physicians for Human Rights (February 2015) Syria’s Medical Community Under Assault's-Medical-Community-Under-Assault-February-2015.pdf

Darren Boyle & Simon Tomlinson (28/04/16) At least 60 people killed in airstrikes several sick children in hospital blitzed by Assad’s forces as UN declare the situation in Aleppo as ‘catastrophic’ Mail Online, News

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (01/05/16) 9 days of blood shedding in Aleppo kill 253 person including 80 children and citizen women. Coverages

Médecins sans Frontières (28/04/16) Syria: Airstrikes destroy Al Quds hospital in Aleppo leaving 14 dead. Press release with update 29/04/16

Elias Primoff (03/05/16) Syria: Al Quds Hospital Death Toll Rises to 55. News & Stories RSS feed from shared on Twitter by @dr_nasser

Bilal Abdul Kareem (04/05/16) Aleppo is Burning. Face the Truth in-depth interview episode posted on YouTube

Lisa Barrington & Stephanie Nebehay (28/04/16) Air strikes on Aleppo hospital kill doctors and children. Reuters World news

Eldorar Alshamia (29/04/16) After (al-Kuds) Hospital – al-Marjah Clinic is the air strikes target in Aleppo. El-Dorar Al-Shamia editorial

International Committee of the Red Cross (29/04/16) Syria: ICRC calls on all sides to stop indiscriminate violence in Aleppo. News release

Kareem Shaheen (03/05/16) Aleppo hospital hit as city faces humanitarian catastrophe. The Guardian, World News, Syria

National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (04/05/16) FSA Sources in Aleppo Confirm Regime Responsible for Targeting Al-Dabbit Hospital, Media Center

ADMIN2 (03/05/16) Aleppo Hospital Targeted in Explosion. The Syrian Human Rights Committee

Elizabeth Hoff (2015) World Health Organization Syrian Arab Republic, Annual Report 2014

Sputnik (02/05/16) Warehouses With Medical Supplies for Aleppo Hospitals Hit With Strikes, Middle East News

Richard Spencer (17/02/16) ‘Medecins Sans Frontieres run by French intelligence,’ says Assad regime. The Telegraph, World news, Syria

Administrator (30/04/16) David Nott Foundation concludes first surgical training course in Turkey. The David Nott Foundation, Press Release

Osama Abo El Ezz (04/05/16) In Aleppo, We Are Running Out of Coffins. The New York Times, Op-Ed


Under Siege

European Commission (September 2016) Syria Crisis, ECHO Factsheet. Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

The Syria Institute & PAX (02/01/16) Siege Watch interactive map

The Syria Institute & PAX (February 2016) Siege Watch, Frist Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

The Syria Institute & PAX (May-July 2016) Siege Watch, Third Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

Avi Asher-Shapiro (04/01/16) Children Are Eating Leaves Off Trees:’ The Nightmare of the Siege of Madaya, Syria. VICE News, Middle East

Syrian American Medical Society (March 2015) Slow Death: Life and Death in Syrian Communities Under Siege, SAMS report Death_Syria Under Siege.pdf

The New Arab and Agencies (03/09/16) Six suspected meningitis cases found near Damascus: Madaya has been under a crippling regime siege [AFP] News

Issam Raad (02/03/16) The Growing Threat of Cholera and Other Diseases in the Middle East. Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations. US House of Representatives, Washington DC.

Sophie Arie (02/04/14) Polio Virus Spreads from Syria to Iraq. British Medical Journal BMJ 2014;348:g2481

Annie Sparrow (20/02/14) Syria’s Polio Epidemic: The suppressed truth. The New York Review of Books

@sams_usa Congrats 2 our team & local partners for a successful #polio campaign in Southern #Syria reaching 122,323 children. End Polio in Syria 2nd round. Tweet on Twitter

CBS News (07/07/14) Edmonton doctor helps Syrians in online psychiatric sessions: Saleem Al-Nuaimi works with the team from Edmonton, Ontario to provide mental-health services to Syrians.

@SaveChildrenTR (09/09/16) Children attempting suicide as siege on Syrian town of Madaya worsens. Retweet on Twitter by Save the Children, Turkey of Independent newspaper article

Euan McKirdy and Schams Elwazer (08/09/16) Child suicide attempts on the rise in besieged Syrian town, group warns: Imagine a world growing up in the eye of Syria’s storm

Displaced People Seeking Refuge

Needs and Population Monitoring (31/08/15) Whole of Syria Needs Identification Framework, Round 2

Ahmed Ramadan (06/05/16) Massacre in Kammouna Could Have Been Prevented Had Obama Approved a Safe Zone. National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (NCS)

The Information Management Unit (IMU) (December 2015) IDP Camps Monitoring Bulletin, Northern Syria. Assistance Coordination Unit Issue No:28

International Rescue Committee (January 2013) Syria: A regional Crisis – IRC Commission On Syrian Refugees

International Rescue Committee (18/09/14) Are We Listening? Acting on our commitments to women and girls

Handicap International (May 2015) The use of explosive weapons in Syria: A time bomb in the making – Analysis of weapons contamination in Syria. Case study, Advocacy

Handicap International (2014) Hidden Victims of the Syrian Crisis: Disabled, injured and older refugees—disabled__injured_and_older_refugees.pdf?1397045203

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (30/09/16) Total Persons of Concern, Syria Regional Refugee Response: Inter-agency Information Sharing Portal

The Cost in Economic Terms

Syrian Center for Policy Research (February 2016) Confronting Fragmentation! Impact of the Syrian Crisis 2015 – Quarterly based report

Aron Lund (05/04/16) Assad’s Other War: Winning on the Ground Defeated by the Pound? The rapid depreciation of the Syrian pound has caused a further decline in the living standards of ordinary Syrians and threatens the continued functioning of remains of the state. Carnegie Middle East Center

Jeanne Gobat & Kristine Kostial with Annalisa Fedelino authorising distribution (June 2016) IMF Working Paper: Syria’s Conflict Economy. International Monetary Fund WP/16/123

The UN Security Council

Dr Simon Adams (March 2015) Failure to Protect: Syria and the UN Security Council. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. Occasional Paper Series No. 5

United Nations Security Council (11/12/15) Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of Security Council resolutions 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014) and 2191 (2014). S/2015/962

Martin Hartberg, Dominic Bowen & Daniel Gorevan (12/03/15) Failing Syria: assessing the impact of UN Security Council Resolutions in protecting and assisting civilians in Syria. Oxfam International, policy paper

Sam Jones (05/05/16) ‘MSF’ brands humanitarian summit ‘a fig-leaf of good intentions’ as it pulls out. Médecins Sans Frontières cites concern over accountability of governments and flouting of humanitarian laws as it withdraws from Istanbul summit. The Guardian, World humanitarian summit

United Nations Security Council (14/07/14) Resolution 2165 (2014) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7216th meeting on 14 July 2014. S/RES/2165 (2014)

Emma Beals & Nick Hopkins (12/09/16) Lifesaving UN aid regularly fails to reach besieged Syrians. US-Russia ceasefire may hit difficulties if aid fails to reach Aleppo, with Assad regime accused of using restrictions as war tactic. Guardian, World News, Syria

Nick Cumming-Bruce (15/09/16) Syria is Delaying Deliveries of Aid in Violation of Ceasefire, UN Says. New York Times, Middle East

Nick Waters in collaboration with Hady Al-Khatib (21/09/16) Analysis of Syrian Red Crescent Aid Convoy Attack. Bellingcat - by and for citizen investigative journalists. MENA

Eliot Higgins (22/09/16) Confirmed: Russian Bomb Remains Recovered from Syrian Red Crescent Aid Convoy Attack. Bellingcat – by and for citizen investigative journalists. MENA

@oabozayd (20/09/16) #FSA statement about targeting humanitarian aid convoy by #Russian airstrikes. Press release from the Revolutionary Armed Groups in Syria

United Nations Security Council (24/08/16) Letter dated 24 August 2016 from the Leadership Panel of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-United Nations Joint Investigative Mechanism addressed to the Secretary General. Third report from OPCW pertaining to Security Council resolution 2235 (2015): S/2016/738

Associated Press at the United Nations (07/10/14) Syria discloses four secret chemical weapons facilities, UN says: News raises concerns Islamic State could get hold of remaining stockpiles a year after UN joint mission set out to destroy them. Guardian, Syria live blog

Colum Lynch & David Kenner (23/08/16) US and Europe Say Assad May Have Kept Some Chemical Weapons: Damascus promised to destroy its entire arsenal, but the world’s chemical weapons watchdog suggests Assad may have squirreled some away. Foreign Policy, The Magazine

Michelle Nichols (24/08/16) UN/OPCW inquiry blames Syria government for gas attacks, likely sanctions fight looms. Reuters, World News

Alex Rowell (09/09/16 updated 19/09/16) Prosecutors close in on Assad: From Lebanon to Leidschendam, its been a bad week in court for the Syrian regime. NOW Commentary Analysis

Ben Taub (18/04/16) The Assad Files: Capturing the top-secret documents that tie the Syrian regime to mass torture and killings. The New Yorker, A Reporter At Large.

The Syria Campaign (June 2016) Taking Sides: The United Nations’ Loss of Impartiality, Independence and Neutrality in Syria. Detailed report with 56 co-signatories from Syrian humanitarian and medical organizations, local councils and civil society groups

Nick Hopkins & Emma Beals (29/08/16) UN pays tens of millions to Assad regime under Syria aid programme. Guardian analysis shows series of contracts awarded to government and charities linked to president’s family. The Guardian, World News, Syria

Syrian NGO Alliance, Syria Relief Network & SHAML CSO’s Coalition (08/09/16) UN Position Paper: We 73 NGOs working on humanitarian response to Syria and neighbouring countries have signed the statement below to rise our concerns about the performance of UN agencies based in Damascus and their partners, particularly the Syrian Arab Red Crescent. Position Paper Final.pdf

Rick Gladstone (08/09/16) 73 Syrian Aid Groups Suspend Cooperation with UN. The New York Times, Middle East

The Response from the International Community

Sam Hamad (14/04/16) How Noam Chomsky Betrayed the Syrian People: American linguist and renowned left-wing activist Noam Chomsky’s stance on the Syria uprising turned proxy war is a betrayal of the Syrian people, writes analyst Sam Hamad. He has allowed his steadfast anti-imperialist approach to blind him to the Arab Spring’s complexities and contradictions. News Deeply, Syria Deeply Op-Ed.

Yassin Al Haj Saleh (Winter 2015) Syria and the Left. Yassin Al Haj Saleh is one of Syria’s leading political dissidents. He spent from 1980-1996 in Syrian prisons and became one of the key intellectual voices of the 2011 Syrian uprising. He spent 21 months in hiding within Syria, eventually escaping to Istanbul. He was interviewed via email by New Politics co-editor Stephen R. Shalom in early November 2014. New Politics, Vol.XV-2, Whole#: 58

Blighty Britain M.J.S. (30/08/13) The Vote of Shame. Britain & Syria, The Economist

BBC Politics (30/08/13) Syria Crisis: Cameron Loses Commons Vote on Syria Action. MPs have rejected possible UK military action against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s government to deter the use of chemical weapons. David Cameron said he would respect the defeat of a government motion by 285-272, ruling out joining US-led strikes.

Joyce Karam (16/03/16) Why Putin is ahead in Syria’s game of chess. Al Arabiya English, Middle East

Anne Barnard (22/03/16) The Scorpion’s Tale: Did Assad Take Putin for a Ride? The New York Times, Middle East

Yalla Souriya (02/10/16) Secret bases of Iran regime in #Syria. Live update on Syria revolution ignored by the mainstream news. Source:

Fabrice Balanche (14/09/16) What Will Year Two of Russia’s Syria Intervention Bring? Moscow and Iran are already several steps ahead of Washington in shaping the war’s potential endgame, so the next administration will need to be mindful of Putin’s likeliest strategies and strongest levers if it wants a different outcome. The Washington Institute: Improving the Quality of US Middle East Policy, Policy Analysis.

Randa Slim (12/09/16) Can Anyone Stop the Syrian War? A new ceasefire brokered by Washington and Moscow just went into effect. But there is a long list of ways the deal could fall apart. Foreign Policy, Argument

Where Does This Leave the Syrian People?

Madar al-Youm (26/09/16) Syrian Opposition ‘No Longer Interested in Political Process: Nyrabia – SNC deputy says opposition will abandon efforts to reach a political settlement after Assad regime and Russia intensified their attack on rebel-held areas of Aleppo. Syrian Observer News.

Enab Baladi (26/09/16) HNC Cuts Short US Trip Amid Military Escalation in Aleppo: ‘It is no longer appropriate to continue a policy which satisfies murderers under the pretext of fighting terrorism,’ opposition leader Hijab tells audience in New York.

High Negotiations Commission for the Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (September 2016) Executive Framework for a Political Solution Based on the Geneva Communiqué (2012) Executive Summary Executive Summary - English.pdf

MEE Staff (06/09/16 updated 07/09/16) Assad must cede power after six-month transitional phase: Opposition. Opposition leaders say they will reject any US-Russian plan that differs significantly from their own. Middle East Eye, News #SyriaWar - UK hosting meeting Syria’s future.

AaSyria (October 2015) ‘Greetings from Darayya.’ A bitterly witty take on the bombing of Darayya shows the perfect home, TV, vase of flowers, coat rack… Creative Memory Blog art of resistance


Unexploded Ordnance

Chemical & Biological Weapons

Infection Control & Immunisation


Search & Rescue

Surgery in a Warzone

Internal Displacement


Damaged Eyesight

Psychological Trauma

Lost Limbs


Medical Practitioners

Allied Healthcare

Health Education



Explosive Devices

Abduction & Extortion


Hospitals & Polyclinics


Mobile Healthcare


Refugee Camps

Safe Zones



Legislation & The Law

Imprisonment, Torture & Death

Under Siege



Multi-faith Alliance



Prosecuting War Crimes & Crimes Against Humanity

Armed Opposition